The 2021 global food security index ranks Nigeria as the 97th country in a cohort of 113 countries which is not the most flattering position. Nigeria’s Food security index was measured by its affordability, availability, quality and exposure to climate change. Data from the World Bank shows that 40% of the food produced in Nigeria goes bad before reaching its final consumer. Climate change and its effect on food security in Nigeria is one issue we must tackle as a nation because it is one reason we experience food shortages in Nigeria.

What then is climate change? 

This is where the earth experiences a significant temperature increase, leading to increased sea levels and natural disasters. All these have a proportional effect on humans as more people become homeless due to the economic meltdown.

What is food security? 

Food security can be seen when all people have access to sufficient, affordable, safe, and nutritious food at all times. Food security becomes a situation when citizens or individuals of a country do not have access to quality and safe food.

How climate change affects food security

  1. Climate change is a threat multiplier for hungry and malnourished people in Nigeria.
  2. Climate change affects food production and availability, access, quality, utilisation, and stability of food systems. In short, it controls all aspects of the food system.
  3. Extreme weather-related disasters are increasing and reducing significant crop yields.
  4. Higher levels of CO2 reduce the nutritional value of crops. 
  5. Climate change and conflict combined destroy livelihoods, drive displacement, widen inequalities, and undermine sustainable development. 

Food Security has three basic primary aims

  1. Ensuring that adequate food supplies are produced.
  2. To maximise stability in the flow of supplies. 
  3. To ensure access to available supplies on the part of those who need them.

Proxies to measure the Food security of a Nation

The following are the four pillars or proxies to measure food security, they include:

  1. Availability.
  2. Access.
  3. Utilization
  4. Stability

In conclusion, ending hunger and undernutrition in a changing climate demands large-scale action. It’s paramount that the matter of climate change is dealt with seriously to reduce its impact on Food security in Nigeria. 


Anosike Goodluck Chibunna


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