There are lots of different conditions that could be considered to be disabling, which makes trying to identify what a disability is very confusing. Generally a disability is something that restricts everyday activities, making it harder for the individual to complete day-to-day tasks. Disability can be caused through scientific problems such as genetic conditions, when something goes wrong with a person’s genes ( the parts of a person they inherit from their parents ) which causes them to have an abnormality. A disability may also be caused by environmental factors, when something happens to a person in their life which makes them disabled. For example, an accident when walking to school or work may lead to an individual losing a limb which would make them disabled.
A physical disability is an irregularity in a person’s body that makes carrying out everyday tasks and functions more difficult. This may be something that can be seen from the outside such as a missing or non-functioning limb. Physical disabilities can also be invisible. There can be problems inside the body such as having a weak heart or lungs or being blind or deaf. Physical disabilities may affect, either temporarily or permanently, a person’s ability to move.
A mental disability is a condition in the brain that affects the way that people understand things. There are lots of different types of mental disability. Some make is harder for people the learn, to read and write and do maths. Others make it more difficult for people to concentrate on one thing at a time, or to communicate with other people. Mental disabilities mean that people’s brains work differently to other people’s brains, and this is not always something that can be changed. In a lot of cases people with mental disabilities have to adapt their behaviour and find different ways of doing things to enable them to do everyday tasks.
Life can be challenging for people with disabilities so it is important to treat them with care and respect and help them whenever you can.